Particulate Air Contaminants and Particulate Contaminant Removal Equipment
ASHRAE Technical Committee 2.4

Historical Research Projects

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ASHRAE members have free access to research project final reports. Non-ASHRAE members can purchase research reports for $30 per article from the ASHRAE Bookstore found at this link.

RP-1596 — Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality in Retail Stores

The primary goal of this investigation was to characterize the ventilation, indoor air quality, and occupant perception in a sample of retail stores. The motivations for this work included the large amount of energy that is spent ventilating retail buildings, as well as the potential for occupational exposure of retail workers and intermittent exposure of customers to indoor air pollutants. One important outcome is an assessment of whether and how much ventilation could be reduced and still maintain acceptable indoor air quality in U.S. retail buildings ...

RP-1376 — Method of Test To Evaluate Field Performance of Commercial Kitchen Ventilation Systems

The main objective of this study was to produce a method of test document for field evaluation of commercial kitchen ventilation system performance. To support this document, laboratory tests were performed on air flow balance measurement protocols and...

RP-1362 — Revised Heat Gain and Capture and Containment Exhaust Rates from Typical Commercial Cooking Appliances

The objective of this research project was to refine and expand the database on the heat gain to space for commercial foodservice equipment and, where applicable for hooded appliances, report the exhaust ventilation rate required for capture and...

RP-1360 — How do Pressure Drop, Efficiency, Weight Gain, and Loaded Dust Composition Change throughout Filter Lifetime?

Under contract with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), RTI International (RTI) conducted research and testing to investigate the nature of dust collected on general ventilation air filters and how the filters' performance changes over time due at least in part to the collection of that dust. In addition to measurements of performance, a survey form was used to collect information on the filters' installation, HVAC operation, exposure to particle sources, and ambient conditions...

RP-1299 — Energy Implications of Filtration in Residential and Light-Commercial Construction

Project 1299-RP was to investigate the links between filter efficiency, pressure drop, and energy consumption in residential and light commercial HVAC systems. The conventional wisdom is that higher pressure drop...

RP-1287 — Particle Counter Specifications for Use with Filter Performance Test Standard ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 52.2

The question addressed goes to the heart of the standard - the particle counter. The standard is written around the use of optical particle counters (OPCs) to perform aerosol concentration measurements...

 RP-1284 — Develop a Standard for Testing and Stating the Efficiency of Industrial Pulse Cleaned Dust Collectors

The objective of this research was to complete a three-fold set of tasks aimed at facilitating the promulgation of a formal test method to be published by ASHRAE...

RP-1281 — Identification, Classification, And Correlation Of Ultrafine Indoor Airborne Particulate Matter With Outdoor Values

Many studies report that adverse health effects are most strongly correlated with fine particulate matter (< 2.5 µm in diameter), originating from ambient emissions mainly derived from fossil fuel combustion. This study examines the infiltration...

RP-1262 — Relate Air Quality and Other Factors to Comfort and Health Symptoms Reported by Passengers and Crew on Commercial Transport Aircraft (Part I)

This study is part of an ASHRAE program aimed at investigating the potential link between perceived health symptoms and discomfort on one hand, and aircraft cabin environmental conditions and human factors on the other. Such data were called for in the...

RP-1257 — Indoor Environmental Effects On The Performance Of School Work By Children

In order to determine whether classroom air quality and thermal conditions in classrooms can affect children’s performance of schoolwork, and...

RP-1243 — Detection and Removal of Gaseous Effluents and By-Products of Fungal Growth That Affect Environments – Phase II: Development of a MVOC Database

Musty odors are often associated with damp or water damaged buildings and are a frequent source of occupant complaints. These odors originate from the release of volatile organic chemicals from mold growth occurring on building materials and construction...

RP-1212 — Airflow Measurement of Biological Safety Cabinets

Measurement of air velocity and air volume flow rate by its very nature is a difficult and imprecies process. Clean air is typically not visible and thus its position and rate of change of position cannot practically be measured using conventional methods...

RP-1190 — Develop a New Loading Dust and Dust Loading Procedures for the ASHRAE Filter Test Standards 52.1 and 52.2

Test standards are primarily made to compare products. Furthermore, the test results should have the possibility to be correlated to real operation expectations. The current loading dust used in ASHRAE 52.1 and Std. 52.2P does not have these properties...

RP-1189 — Investigation of Mechanisms and Operating Environments that Impact the Filtration Efficiency of Charged Air Filtration Media

Electrically charged filter materials have become quite common in many air cleaning applications. Several studies have shown that the standard filter tests will not reveal all phenomena which can take place when charged air filters are exposed to...

RP-1134 — Evaluation of Photocatalytic Air Cleaning Capability

Typically, solutions for alleviating poor indoor air quality (IAQ) resulting from airborne pollutant exposure are achieved through VOC source elimination, supplying larger fractions of fresh air in the ventilation supply, and active remediation of the...

RP-1098 — Field Test Methods to Measure Contaminant Removal Effectiveness of Gas Phase Air Filtration Equipment; Phase II of 791RP

Prior Art 791-RP (Liu, 1996) and Phase II: Field Test Methods to Measure Contaminant Removal Effectiveness of Gas Phase Air Filtration Equipment 791-RP (1098-TRP). Based on literature data...

RP-1088 — Coordinate and Analyze Interlaboratory Testing of Filters under ASHRAE Standard 52.2 to Determine the Adequacy of the Apparatus Qualification Tests

This report details an interlaboratory comparison of the ANSI/ASHRAE 52.2-1999 test procedure. A total of eight laboratories participated in the study, with six of the laboratories completing the full body of tests. The results were analyzed statistically...

RP-1072 — Detection and Removal of Gaseous Effluents and Byproducts of Fungal Growth That Affect Indoor Environments

Indoor odors, particularly those causing discomfort, frequently appear to spark complaints of poor indoor air quality in buildings. The ventilation system is potentially a source, an amplifier, and a transportation system for odors, including mVOCs...

RP-961 — Identification of Contaminants, Exposures, Effect and Control Options for Construction/ Renovation Activities, Phase II (804-RP -- Phase I)

Construction and renovation activities can act as strong sources of particulate and gaseous contaminants in buildings, both during and for extended time periods after the activity. These contaminants can adversely affect the health and comfort of building...

RP-957 — Relate Air Quality and Other Factors to Symptoms Reported by Passengers and Crew on Commercial Aircraft

The study has the following four distinct parts: Conduct a literature search to determine possible causal factors that may contribute to reported symptoms and help differentiate between symptoms caused by air quality from those caused by other factors...

RP-929 — HVAC Maintenance Costs

The objective of this study was to update and expand the data available on HVAC maintenance costs. Data on HVAC maintenance costs and HVAC equipment characteristics were gathered through a mail survey of samples of office buildings, medical facilities...

RP-909 — Determine the Efficacy of Antimicrobial Treatments of Fibrous Air Filters

Indoor air quality is a primary health concern and is currently in the forefront of consideration for government regulation. It has been theorized that air filters are part of the cause of IAQ problems due to re-entrainment of microbiological particulates...

RP-880 — Evaluation of Biofiltration of Air, an Innovative Air Pollution Control Technology

A review of published biofiltration literature was conducted to determine the capacity and limitations of biofiltration for removing volatile organic compounds and inorganic pollutants from air. A list of over 250 references was compiled and copies of...

RP-834 — Effect of Proper Design Parameters on Airborne Contamination in Poultry Operations

Ventilation characteristics and bioaerosol concentrations were evaluated in four poultry slaughter plants. Supply and exhaust airflow rates for each room were measured along with internal air distribution. Each plant used a negative pressure ventilation...

RP-792 — Evaluation of Test Methods for Determining the Effectiveness and Capacity of Gas Phase Air Filtration Equipment for Indoor Air Applications (Phase II)

Gas-phase air filtration equipment (GPAFE) has been increasingly proposed and used to improve indoor air quality. Indoor air applications differ from the common industrial uses of the technology in that concentrations are lower and the identity of the...

RP-771 — Impact of Staff Training on the Maintenance and Energy Costs of Public and Commercial Type Buildings

This study on the impact of training on maintenance and operating costs in Schools, Hospitals and Offices was undertaken in three phases: • a search for organizations having training programs for their staff, and a willingness to participate in the...

RP-759 — Identification and Effectiveness of Current Methods Applied and Criteria Applied in Non-Routine Cleaning and Decontaminating Ducts and Other HVAC Components

The purpose of this literature survey was to evaluate publications and other materials which addressed the subject of non-routine cleaning of ducts and other components of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. In the first section of...

RP-745 — Identification and Characterization of Cooking Effluents As Related to Optimum Design of Kitchen Ventilation Systems

This report includes the results of Phase I of this research project. The main objectives of Phase I are to review the literature for information regarding previous measurements of effluent from cooking processes and test methods used, compile this inform...

RP-695 — Effects of Temperature And Humidity On Perceived Indoor Air Quality, Phase I: Air Contaminated By Materials

In present standards perceived air quality and ventilation requirements are considered independent of the thermal environment. To improve the design and operation of HVAC systems, it would be important to establish a model which predicts the impact of...

RP-675 — Determination of Air Filter Performance Under Variable-Air-Volume (Vav) Conditions

The collection of data described in Part I of this Final Report describes the performance of 31 general-ventilation-type air filters, using the methods of ASHRAE Standard 52.1 on full-size filters. These data were gathered for fixed airflow, as specified...

RP-671 — Define a Fractional Efficiency Test Method That Is Compatible With Particulate Removal Air Cleaners Used in General Ventilation

The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) has developed a new fractional filtration efficiency laboratory test method for air cleaners used in general ventilation. The method provides a reliable and accurate means of measuring air cleaner fractional...

RP-625 — Matching Filtration to Health Requirements, Phase I and II

The material to be presented is the result of a six month literature search that focuses on the filtration aspects of microbiological aerosols. After collecting, categorizing and reviewing a large body of literature dealing with microbial contamination of...

RP-623 — Testing Grease Hoods

A field test method for the measurement of exhaust rates through wall canopy grease hoods equipped with baffle filters has been developed. The method consists of measuring a velocity profile at or near the filter face of the exhaust inlet, using a 4" head...

RP-531 — Recirculation of Air from Dust Collectors in Industrial Operations

The fractional penetrations of three types of industrial dust collectors (pulsed cartridge units, pulsed fabric bag units and electrostatic precipitators) as functions of loading time and particle size are presented. The fractional penetrations were...

RP-525 — Indoor Air Quality Evaluations of Three Office Buildings

A research project was undertaken to investigate construction materials and techniques for the improvement of indoor air quality within office buildings, to evaluate the indoor air quality in an office building built with these special construction...

RP-397 — The Effect of Indoor Relative Humidity on Survival of Airborne Microorganisms and the Related Absenteeism in Schools

It is hypothesized that the increase in respiratory diseases in winter is caused by the reduced indoor relative humidity increasing the survival time of airborne bacteria and viruses. This paper reports the effect of ventilation and relatives, humidity up...

RP-312 — Ventilation and Exhaust Air Requirements for Hospitals

The general objective was to investigate and recommend new minimum exhaust air rates from hospital toilet rooms, autopsy, x-ray, and other similar soaees based upon energy conservation, odor control and health maintenance. The relative energy intensity...

RP-202 — Ventilation Requirements in Operating Rooms

Hospital operating rooms must meet one of the most complex set of control requirements of any indoor environment, if acceptable performance is to be achieved. The overall objective of this research project was to identify and demonstrate control strategies...

RP-183 — Organic Contaminants in Indoor Air and Their Relationship to Outdoor Contaminants

Relatively little information exists on the organic contaminants in indoor air, except for some toxic materials in industrial occupational environments. In view of the extended exposures of individuals to indoor air in spaces other than in industry, more...